How did peptide display technologies develop?
Phage display was the first technology to successfully address the needs of a peptide display platform and to come to widespread use. Here, a genetically modified filamentous bacteriophage is utilised to display peptides fused to coat proteins on its surface. This technology allows for the display of both linear and simple cyclic peptides.
Ribosome and mRNA display technologies, whereby there is direct conjugation between mRNA/ribosome and peptide, pushed the boundaries of peptide display. They introduced the incorporation of unnatural amino acids into the displayed peptide for the first time, allowing for the selection of peptides with enhanced characteristics.
Bead-based peptide display technologies consist of a microbead with a peptide displayed alongside its encoding DNA, each bead displays a unique DNA and peptide. Bead based displays allow for the presentation of thousands of copies of a single peptide species per bead, the incorporation of unnatural amino acids, post translational modifications, peptide presentation by complex scaffolds such as MHC and are amenable to addressing cell surface targets.